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Metastatic cancer

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Metastatic cancer spreads from a tumor locally to surrounding tissues or regionally to other organs and lymph nodes through the lymphatic system and the blood stream. Common regions of the body where the cancer spreads, are the bones, lungs, brain, and liver. Metastatic cancer occurs when cancer cells spread from the place where the Question 3). Metastatic cancer to the thyroid usually occurs in patients with disseminated cancers and is associated with a dismal prognosis, with death occurring in 9 months on average [1 ,2 ]. Patients with solitary thyroid metastatic RCC may have a prolonged survival after surgical resection and adjuvant therapy [4 ,5 ].

Metastatic cancer is cancer that has spread from the part of the body where it started (its primary site or origin) to other parts of the body. When cells break away from a cancerous tumor, they can travel to other areas of the body through either the bloodstream or lymphatic channels. Metastatic cancers in bones often cause a lot of pain and in some cases, bone fractures. Metastatic cancer in the brain can cause headaches and seizures. Metastatic cancer is considered advanced cancer if it has spread to several locations or done a lot of harm.

Metastatic cancer occurs when cancer cells break away from a cancerous tumor and travel to other areas of the body and continue to grow. The site of the original cancer is called the "primary" site and the cancer that forms in the new area is called metastatic cancer. Metastatic cancer cells require properties that allow them not only to adapt to a foreign microenvironment but to subvert it in a way that is conducive to their continued proliferation and survival. Recent conceptual and technological advances have contributed to our understanding of the role of the host tissue stroma in promoting tumor cell growth and dissemination and have provided new insight into the genetic makeup of cancers with high metastatic proclivity.

Treatments may be done on an outpatient baisis using conscious sedations. Treatment in both arms repeats every 3 weeks for 3-6 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Quality of life is assessed at baseline, at the end of courses 2, 4, and 6, and 1 month after completion of therapy. Treatment for metastatic lung cancer is usually through chemotherapy. Metastatic lung cancer indicates that the cancer has spread to the bloodstream and due to this the cancer may be found in many places that are not detected by a CT scan.

Treatment may include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. When the cancer cannot be cured, treatment can help you feel better and live longer. Treatments that are under clinical evaluation are appropriate and should be considered when possible. Treatments vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. The three standard treatments are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Treatment of metastatic breast cancer generally focuses on relieving symptoms and extending a woman's lifetime. Treatment and survival is determined by whether or not a cancer is local or has spread to other locations. If the cancer spreads to other tissues and organs, it may decrease a patient's likelihood of survival.

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