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Gastric cancer

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Gastric cancer

Gastric cancer currently ranks second in global cancer mortality. Chemotherapy clearly improves survival in comparison to best supportive care only. Gastric cancer is also known as stomach cancer. This condition affects men somewhat more often than women. In 2008, approximately 21,500 new cases of gastric cancer will be diagnosed in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society. Gastric cancer is often in an advanced stage when it is diagnosed . At later stages, gastric cancer can be treated but rarely can be cured .

Gastric cancer is a major worldwide problem in both developing and developed countries. It contributes significantly to the economic burden and mortality in many countries. Gastric cancer traditionally carries a poor prognosis with 79% of tumors diagnosed at stage IV and five year survival less than 5%. Advanced gastric cancer is generally refractory to chemotherapy, which leads to poor prognosis. Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death in the world [20 ]. Gastric cancer cells invasion and metastasis often lead to a poor prognosis.

Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, especially in developing countries. Although infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria may be a risk factor, the exact cause of stomach cancer is unknown. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers. Surgical resection of early-stage localized disease is the only curative treatment. Gastric cancer staging by lymph node sampling has a profound effect on patient survival. Survival of patients with gastric cancer can be compromised if the staging is done inadequately.

Gastric cancer may also be called stomach cancer. The major type of gastric cancer is adenocarcinoma, or cancer of the glandular tissue in the stomach. Gastric cancers are most commonly adenocarcinomas (95%), although lymphomas and smooth muscle tumors (GIST - gastrointenstinal smooth muscle tumors) do occur. Adenocarcinomas are subdivided into two groups, intestinal and diffuse. Gastric cancer incidence in 2009 is forecast to be 197,000 in the seven major pharmaceutical markets (US, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and UK). Although, the global incidence has decreased in recent years, mortality remains high, particularly in the US and Europe.

Gastric cancer is approximately twice as common in men and more common in Blacks than Caucasians. It is rare to see gastric cancer before the age of 40, and its incidence increases with age thereafter. Gastric cancer is not only common but is second to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, with an estimated 700 000 deaths attributed to gastric cancer. Five-year survival statistics in gastric cancer are poor (less than 5%). Gastric cancer spreads to other areas of the body in as many as 80 percent of cases.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world with a high incidence and death rate. TNM staging system is used worldwide to predict prognosis and direct therapeutic decisions of patients with GC. Gastric cancer ranks 14th in incidence and is the 9th leading cause of cancer death in the US. Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide, and it is a disease with a high death rate (700,000 per year) making it the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide after lung cancer. It is more common in men .

Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The underlying molecular mechanisms of its carcinogenesis are relatively poorly characterized.


   
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