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Cervix cancer

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Author: Mako Junior

Cervix cancer does not spread early. It spreads by way of the lymphatic system. Cervix cancer screening should be offered to all women over 25 years. There is limited evidence of benefit from screening in women aged over 60 years, though the likely yield of screening is low in women over age 60 since the incidence of high-grade cervical lesions declines after middle age. Cervix cancer is preceded by cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Surgery for CIN is effective at reducing the risk of subsequent invasive carcinoma.

Cervix cancer is a curable cancer, but achieving the best results depends on well-organized and appropriately resourced cancer services. Brachytherapy is an integral part of the cervical carcinoma treatment armamentarium. Cervix cancer was one of the three most common cancers in females. In 2005, cervix cancer ranked second after breast cancer. Cervix cancer continues to be a common malignancy in Indian women in the absence of routine cervix examination. Most cases come to light as referrals of advanced gynecologic complaints.

Cervical cancers can spread by way of the lymphatic system . The lymphatic vessels drain from the cervix to clusters of lymph glands along the pelvic wall. Cervical cancer can be squamous, glandular or mixed type. Invasion is diagnosed when there is a breach in the basement membrane. Cervical cancer is extremely rare in women under age 25.

Cervical cancer is one of the few cancers that affects young women (in their twenties and even their teens), so no one who is sexually active is really too young to begin screening. Additionally, the risk for cervical cancer doesn't ever decline, so no one is too old to continue screening. Cervical cancer is not more likely in relatives of those who have had this particular type of malignancy. This is because it is thought to be caused by a virus, HPV , which is sexually acquired, especially in combination with cigarette smoking (no one ever talks about that!). Cervical cancer is usually the result of a virus infection: the human papillomavirus (HPV), a very common virus affecting the cells of the cervix. It is generally sexual transmitted through sexual intercourse.

Cervical screening helps detect changes in the cervix. It checks for cells that may, if untreated, develop into cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high-risk "oncogenic" types of HPV, also linked to other cancers. Worldwide, HPV types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases.

Women need to become more involved and learn all they can about Pap Smears and cervical cancer. Women without any of these risk factors rarely get cervical cancer. On the other hand, while these risk factors increase the odds of getting cervical cancer, many women with these risks do not get this disease. Women with early-stage, minimally invasive cancer who wish to preserve their fertility may be considered for cone biopsy. All of these procedures are performed on an outpatient basis.

Women with high-grade CIN or frankly malignant Pap smears should have colposcopic-directed cervical biopsy. Colposcopy is a technique using a binocular microscope and 3% acetic acid applied to the cervix in which abnormal areas appear white and can be biopsied directly. Women are fertile between puberty (when periods start) and the menopause (or change of life, when the periods stop). Each ovary is connected to the womb by a tube called the Fallopian tube.


   
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